Visual Accessibility Research

Peter Sloterdijk, Foams Spheres Volume III: Plural Spherology, MIT Press, 2016

Ellen Lupton and Andrea Lipps, The Senses: Design Beyond Vision, Princeton Architectural Press, 2018

UK Home Office, Accessible Service Design.

Center for Disease Control, USA, Disability & Health, 2023

Karwai Pun, Dos and don’ts on designing for accessibility, 2016 (See also the data on github)

Braille Institute, Blind and Low Vision Web Accessibility Tips

Braille Institute, Atkinson Hyperlegible Font

Accessibility, MDN Web Docs

Accessibility Best Practices, Human Interface Design, Apple

Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines, Apple, 1995

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) color contrast formula, latest standard.

The Web Almanac, HTTP Archive, Accessibility 2021


Color & Contrast

Multiple Colors Contrast Checker

Color Safe

Tufte on color choices, how many, being chill

Inclusive Design with Jutta Treviranus

Washington Post Accessibility Guidelines

Adding alternative text to images

☀️ SFMOMA ☀️ Sunshine ☀️ Comments ☀️

My name is Benjamin De Kosnik, an art lover who lives in SF. I have been a “mostly/sometimes” member of SFMOMA since the late 1990s.

Thank you for this meeting. This is a response to one of Neal’s provocative questions, which I will slightly restate as:

SFMOMA is perceived as a great museum, but not deeply engaged in our community. How can we be a better civic actor?

In the next three minutes (I took two), I will detail ten ways SFMOMA can make to be a better civic actor.

  1. Have free admission every day
  2. Have free admission every week
  3. Have a free day once a month
  4. Give SF residents free admission on the weekend, look at the de Young Museum for leadership here
  5. Have free night hours once a week
  6. Have late night hours (until midnight) once a month
  7. Have free 24 hour open-access all-levels once a year in combination with external sites and community events, look at Paris Nuit Blanche here
  8. Have 10% at-large or in-public or from-public members on the board
  9. Is this the first of the 2020 required sunlight meetings? When is the next one? Next meeting is November 19, 2020. Please publish the dates and connection information for the next Sunlight meeting on SFMOMA’s usual public communication channels, including but not limited to the website, Twitter feed, IG streams, etc.
  10. Have something special with Open Space: please double or triple down on this platform and make it even more of a community resource. Open Space is the only W.A.G.E certified art web publishing platform in the United States. Give the community a space/place on the Open Space platform and increase public commissions to do so.
  11. Please address the Taylor Brandon IG controversy from earlier this year (and the continuing instances documented on the IG account ‘change the museum’) directly and commit to an ongoing discussion with the public in 30 days that allows comment and dissent.


Nam June Paik Timeline




  • Born in Seoul, South Korea
  • John Cage and Joseph Beuys in Munich, Germany
  • FLUXUS, Yoko Ono, NY
  • Random Access (Records Schaschlik), interactive music exhibition
  • Afterlude to the Exposition of Experimental Television
  • Zen for TV
  • NY
  • Robot K-456 with Shuya Abe
  • Magnet TV
  • Moon is the Oldest TV
  • Zen for Film
  • TV Crown
  • Beatles Electroniques with Jud Yalkut
  • Us Down By the Riverside with Jud Yalkut
  • Opera Sextronique with Charlotte Moorman: she is arrested.
  • TV Clock, Digital Experiment at Bell Labs, Etude 1 @ Bell Labs
  • Cybernetics of Arts
  • Concordance Letter, essay in Flykingen Bulletin
    @ Stockholm
  • Texts on TV / Aphorisms
  • Stony Brook Report (referenced in Video Common Market)
  • Paik-Abe Video Synthesizer
  • Electronic Moon No. 2
  • Videotape Study No. 3
  • The Medium is the Medium
  • Global Groove and Video Common Market
  • Global Groove
  • Everyone Will Have Their Own TV Channel
  • Video Common Market in The TeleVISION Laboratory News
  • Electronic Super Highway @ Rockefeller Foundation
  • TV Garden @ Whitney
  • TV Buddha @ Stedelijk
  • I Ching TV, TV of Change
  • TV Candle
  • TV Fish
  • Married to Shigeko Kubota
  • Documenta 6 Satellite Telecast
  • Projects: Nam June Paik @ Museum of Modern Art
  • Time and Space Concepts in Music and Visual Art with John Cage and Merce Cunningham
  • How to Make Oil Obsolete
  • Lake Placid ’80 @ 1980 Olympic Winter Games
  • Nam June Paik @ Whitney
  • V-yramid
  • Participation TV
  • Satellite Art Distribution, Multi-Locale Participation, Art Broadcast
  • Good Morning, Mr. Orwell @ satellite via NY, Pompidou, Germany, South Korea
  • German TV show, “Bei Bio”
  • Egg Grows @ San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
  • Butterfly
  • Bye Bye Kipling @ satellite via Seoul, Tokyo, NY
  • Wrap Around the World @ satellite via 1988 Seoul Olympics
  • The More the Better / Dadaikseon
  • Venus
  • Tele-Commuting: From Bali to Broadway
  • A Tale of Two Cities with Paul Garrin
  • Golden Lion @ Venice Biennale
  • Untitled, player piano, 15 televisions, 2 cameras, 2 laser disk players, 1 light
  • More Log-In: Less Logging
  • TV Buddha Reincarnated, aka Techno Buddha
  • Sonatine For Goldfish, aka TV Fish
  • Global Encoder
  • Cyberforum
  • Video Server
  • Rt.66 BBS
  • Ars Electronica
  • WareZ Academy
  • Hacker Newbie
  • E-Mail vs Snail Mail
  • WAIS Station
  • Bio-Neural Net
  • Megatron/Matrix @ Smithsonian
  • Electronic Super Highway: Nam June Paik in the ’90s @ Museum of American Art
  • Cybertown
  • Two Channel Music Tape: Spring/Fall with Paul Garrin
  • Stroke
  • Koyto Award
  • TV Garden @ Guggenheim
  • Modulation in Sync @ Guggenheim
  • Analogue Assemblage
  • Global Groove Remix
  • Standing Buddha with Outstretched Hand
  • Golden Buddha
  • Victrola
  • Died, Florida

Art Republishing Conundrum

Two archive images from Maria Porge’s article in American Craft, May 2007. A Whole Life: The Art (and Craft) of Ruth Asawa. The image on the left is a representation of the page as published. The image on the right is a representation of the original page with only the author text remaining.

How to think outside the cage that has grown up around art writing? Established art writers find it extremely difficult to find and make public past art writing. On-line archives for art magazines are more often than not missing , locked behind a paywall, and of poor quality. Subscriber archives at venerable publishers such as Art Forum consist of select articles since 2000, in the form of grainy screenshots of articles, often compressing both text and image into black and white jpegs of size 540 x 400. This tiny amount of information is equivalent to reading an Art Forum article on a 1980’s television, with 20% of the screen blocked by a potted plant. 

At the same time, galleries like Hauser Worth list archives of press for artists. Is there a way to level the playing field for the authors of the original article?

Reprinting past work within the current publishing and legal climate is especially difficult. Reprinting is especially tricky for art writing, due to an excessive combination of out-of-print art publications, a forking trail of long-dead publishers, haphazard archives, lost or vague contracts, and wishful-to-woeful adjudication of republishing rights. In addition, clearing image rights with any artists (or other rights holder) under discussion is also required, and perhaps the image-maker or recorder as well. The complexity quickly becomes overwhelming, contributing to art history’s glacial pace at online organization and digitization?

An alternative that many art writers employ is to scan the print article and put links to the PDF’s. Depending on the publishing contract, authors may have explicit rights to do this. Some publishers put free versions of their publication or specific articles on their own websites, suitable for re-linking by authors. Several writers do full bibliographies with links to available PDF files.

What is best practice? What is legal? What is common? Could higher-resolution files for Art Forum be hosted at the internet archive?

How does this fit into the author/writer/artist identity elsewhere on the web? Is it linking to an academic or organizational affiliation? Or to Is it this linking to an author page? Is it linking to the art writer’s canonical home page?

Is there another way? Is there a way to explicitly manufacture a transformation such that the new media archive’s existence has legal standing? Can transformative works be used to republish and protect fair uses for any of three purposes: preservation, a full-text search engine, and electronic access for disabled patrons who could not read the print versions?


Data Practice Bibliography

boyd, danah. 2006. “Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8: Writing Community Into Being on Social Network Sites.” First Monday 11:12, December.

Hu, Yuheng, Lydia Manikonda, and Subbarao Kambhampati. “What We Instagram: A First Analysis of Instagram Photo Content and User Types.” ICWSM. 2014.

Keefe, Patrick Radden. “The Detectives Who Never Forget A Face.” The New Yorker, August 22, 2016.

Lee, Pamela. “Identity Theft.” Jessica Silverman Gallery text

Liu, Alan. “Transcendental Data: Toward a Cultural History and Aesthetics of the New Encoded Discourse.” Critical Inquiry 31 (2004): 209-38.

Liu, Hugo. “Social Network Profiles as Taste Performances.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communications 13 (2008): 252-275.

Manovich, Lev. “The Anti-Sublime Ideal in Data Art.” Lev Manovich. 2002. 2016-07-20.

Manovich, Lev. “Notes on Instagrammism and contemporary cultural identity.” 2016.

Ostrow, Saul. Decoding O’Doherty, Art in America. December 2007.

Paglen, Trevor. Scripts,

Whitelaw, Mitchell. “Art Against Information: Case Studies in Data Practice.” The Fiberculture Journal 11 (2008 DAC conference proceedings).

DTL 16, Data Transparency Lab

FAT-ML 16, Fairness Accountability Transparency in ML

Proposal for a new Facebook account type: monad

Something so simple that it can be described via a phone keyboard.

Current Facebook account types are: organization, person, fictional character. May I suggest one more? 

Introducing the monad account type. This is an account by a person, using their real name, that has no wall and accepts no friend invitations. This account type can join groups, and sign up for event notifications. 

Eleven Electronic Media Questions for Artists

2015-07-31 12.01.23

Q1. How do you like to communicate? Rank everything from voice phone call, texting, email, in person, etc. Top five only.

Q2. How do you search for art on the internet? What do you find?

Q3. What is your oldest digital file? How do you store it?

Q4. What is your oldest extant artwork? Where is it? How is it stored or displayed?

Q5. Do you have an art documentation system, and if so, what? Have you seen other art documentation systems that you liked? Do you remember how you made work ten years ago?

Q6. Search for yourself. Google, Facebook, etc. What do you see? Do you see anything missing?

Q7. Where is your oldest digital self hidden?

Q8. Do you have any media policies? If yes, detail. A media policy is an action or protocol that you put in place that regulates media. For instance, not having a Facebook account is a media policy. Only watching two hours of television a night is a media policy. Figuring out when to post on Instagram (Instagram Prime Time) is a media policy. Etc, etc.

Q9. List all current media and social media accounts accessed via the internet. Specify two or three favorites. Do you have any aliases, and if so, detail to your desired comfort level. Have you ever had an on-line account suspended or deactivated, if so, detail as above. Do you archive social media history, track meta-data, and if so detail.

Q10. Is your public representation a result of a deliberate strategy or strategies on your part, or is this just internet magic? Discuss. Do you own FIRSTNAME.LASTNAME?

Q11. What simple things do you do that are likely to work in the future? Especially for areas like password managers, image file formats, archival data, on-line, etc?

Something great from the New Yorker: The GNU Manifesto turns 30 by Maria Bustillos. Previously as Dream Freely. See Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’s Best practices for conservation of media art from an artists perspective for art best practices. Lynda Schmitz Fuhrig at the Smithsonian Institution Archives, in Preserving Your Treasures.

Thirty Years of the GNU Manifesto

The free software movement entering its 30th year is the ideal time to reflect on previous successes and prioritize future work.

The success has been massive. The software industry has been irrevocably changed from a model of selecting the best fit commodity proprietary software component for a given task into a knowledge-based model of crafting known good components into the custom software-hardware machines. Changing the software to fit the task and not the other way around. The idea of contributing back to development communities, and empowering others has moved from the periphery to a central part of all software development. It’s not all rosy, some obstinate people and institutions still don’t get it, but even ten years of perspective gives confidence that the worst structural barriers of the old proprietary software model have been banished for good.

There is still much to do, with both the social and the technology aspects of the free software movement.

The software aspects.

The software universe is expanding at an exponential rate. Software components are being combined into custom systems with exponentially increasing complexity. Managing this complexity is the top technical priority of the free software movement today. Solutions include conscientious documentation practices, and the development and incorporation of new visual tools into software engineering practice that supplement the usual perception of source code as literary text. Visual grammars that change perception, comprehension, and analysis of software sources exist today within proprietary confines and must be surpassed by yet-to-be devised free forms. The free software community must lead this effort and make sure that the tools and visual solutions adopted are free for all to use and fully model the capabilities of free software ecosystems.

The organizational and social aspects.

Free and open software communities are not fixed forms, and need to evolve as social movements. Experiments with new organizational forms that encourage equal participation regardless of gender, generational cohort, geographic region, or corporate sponsorship should be encouraged.